How to choose a cnc spindle ?
The right choice of a spindle or a milling head is very important.
Professional spindles are brushless inductive inverter-controlled spindles on ceramic bearings with a tight engine compartment and absolutely with a metal housing. We have a choice of spindle revolutions and power.
The spindle speed is the nominal value of the identification plate (12.000, 15.000, 18.000, 24.000, 40.000 rpm), which does not mean that the spindle is always spinning with these revolutions. Revolutions can be controlled by the inverter but you have to remember that the spindle power is the value of torque multiplied by rotational speed, so while preserving torque and reducing revolutions by half - about half the power also falls. And here we have to make a compromise ...
There is not a spindle for everything. The higher spindle power the larger are the diameters of bearings and these bearings are the cause of the spindle speed limitation. The larger bearing diameter the higher is the centrifugal force with which the balls are pressing on the running tracks of the outer ring of the bearing, and thus more heat is released (one of the methods to reduce this effect is the use of much lighter ceramic balls). Therefore, 40.000 rpm spindles are usually produced only in low power ranges.
High speed is best for materials such as aluminum, wood, composite materials, laminates, etc. When machining steel, especially stainless steel, thermoplastics or when drilling with HSS drill bits, high speed is rather not applied.
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